Human papillomavirus, types of papillomas

Papillomas and wartsare benign lesions on the skin. Their appearance is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV).

These increases spoil the look and undermine self-confidence. After all, they often occur in open places: face, neck, décolleté. In addition, these leaks are damaged by the coating and become inflamed. But the most unpleasant thing is when papillomas and condyloma appear on the genitals. They can not only destroy intimate life, but also cause the development of a cancerous tumor.

The disease caused by papillomavirus is called papillomatosis. This disease is common in people who are sexually active. According to some reports, 80% of adult women have its manifestations. 70% of them were sexually infected. In men, external signs of the disease are much less common - 1% have warts on the genitals, 30-40% have an asymptomatic course of the disease.

There are two periods in a person's life when the risk of infection is particularly high. The first falls at the beginning of sexual life at the age of 17-25 years, and the second at the peak of new partnerships at the age of 35-40 years. Due to the peculiarities of the development of immunity, children and adolescents who are infected by their parents are very susceptible to this virus.

Older and obese people are more prone to developing papillomas. They have these neoplasms appear on the folds of the skin and on the face.

Infection with a virus does not always lead to the appearance of papillomas. The causative agent lives in the skin cells and if a person's immunity is strong, then he successfully copes with this infection. But if the body's defenses fall, then warts or papillomas appear on the skin.

Many are interested in how papillomas and warts differ. In fact, these are manifestations of different forms of the same virus.

what do warts look like

wenIt is a benign neoplasm caused by human papillomavirus types 6 and 11. Some scientists believe that warts are more likely to degenerate into cancerous tumors. They are found in the genital area and in the anus (anus), but can sometimes appear near the mouth. Warts often appear in the form of a rash consisting of many elements. They have an unpleasant property of joining and reaching large sizes. In the mucosa of the genitals, they grow in the form of turkey comb.

The warts are red or dirty brown, but in the genitals they are lighter. To the touch they are softer and softer than papillomas. In structure, they resemble many villi that have grown together at the base.

Warts are more contagious and tend to reappear after treatment. They come in three types: genital, flat and intraepithelial warts. These formations must be removed. At the same time, doctors record all cases of condyloma.

papillomas in the human body

Papilloma- These are benign neoplasms caused by less dangerous varieties of human papillomavirus, most often types 1, 2, 3, 4 and 10. The risk of developing an oncological tumor in this case is low, papillomas are more of acosmetic defect rather than a serious problem. They are located on different parts of the skin: on the eyelids, in the mouth and on the lips, on the chest and neck, the armpits. But they can also be in the genitals.

Papillomas are lighter than warts: pink, white, pearl or light brown. As a rule, they appear one by one, do not merge with each other. They rarely exceed 1 cm in height. The appearance of papillomas is also different - these are rounded, lumpy formations on a stalk. They look like cauliflower and are strong to the touch.

Papillomas respond better to treatment and may go away on their own over time. This happens in 20% of cases.

So let's summarize. Papillomas are a less dangerous form of manifestationpapillomavirusperson. But the warts need to be removed. But it is difficult to distinguish condyloma from papilloma independently, because each person has his own disease. Therefore, in any case, consult a doctor for advice.

Skin papillomas

Causes of papillomas

human papillomavirus in the body

Papilloma is a benign round tumor on a thin stalk, which in shape resembles a papilla. But this is not the disease itself, but its consequences. Papilloma can be compared to fungus. Even though we see them on the surface, the mycelium has spread its nets underground. This is the case with papillomas, everything is exactly the same.

The cause of this infectious disease is human papillomavirus (HPV). It enters the skin and begins to multiply in its surface layer - the squamous epithelium. The virus, like a mycelium, lies silently in the thickness of the skin. But when immunity falls, and a sufficient amount of pathogen accumulates, it changes the epithelial cell nuclei. And because of this, they begin to produce "wrong" offspring. Virus-mutated skin cells actively grow and cause papilloma to appear.

Modes of transmission and modes of infection

  1. Through sexual contact.The thin mucosa of the genitals is very sensitive to the virus. If your partner has papillomas in the genitals, then the probability of infection is almost 100%. Using a condom can reduce the risk. But if the discharge is in an unprotected place (for example, the perineum), then the infection will occur in this case. It should be remembered that any kind of sexual contact and even kissing is dangerous with such a partner.
  2. From mother to child during birth.This occurs when the expectant mother has warts on the internal or external genitals. During birth, the baby swallows the virus and he develops papillomas in the larynx. This form of the disease is difficult to treat.
  3. Through household items. Especially often the infection occurs through towels, rags, razors, epilators. In this way the children of sick parents are infected.
  4. Infection in public places.Baths, swimming pools and locker rooms in gyms can be dangerous. The virus left by a sick person on wet surfaces does not die. Causes infection if the infection has entered the damaged skin. But the chances of that are not high.
  5. Autoinfection. This means that one papilloma can cause the appearance of a dozen other neoplasms. Self-infection occurs during shaving or epilation, when rubbed with clothes.

Human papillomavirus, types of papillomas

Diagnosis of papillomas in humans

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most prevalent on the planet. The causative agent of the disease itself is a double strand of DNA with genetic information, surrounded by a protective protein shell. There are over 100 species of it. Of these, 40 cause disease in humans. Depending on the type of pathogen, the disease has different manifestations: warts, sharp, flat or intradermal papillomas and cancer of the genitals.

After infection, the virus penetrates the nuclei of skin cells and begins to multiply there. This lasts for about 3-12 months. This period is called the incubation period: the virus is already in the body, but external manifestations are still invisible.

Then, if the immune system is weakened, microscopic papillae consisting of several cells appear on the surface of the skin. Gradually, they grow and can grow up to 10 centimeters. If the immune system is strong, then papillomatosis either does not manifest at all or self-healing occurs. This can happen in young people under 25, after birth or when a chronic illness has gone away.

There are several types of papillomavirus:

  1. Non-oncogenic papillomaviruses (HPV 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 63).This group of viruses that do not cause regeneration in skin cells. HPV types 1, 2, 4 and 63 often cause plantar and vulvar warts on the fingers. 3 and 10 cause flat warts, which were previously considered a severe form of the disease. In fact, it is the body that tries to limit the spread of the virus. It appears to create a "sarcophagus" around the affected cells.
  2. Oncogenic papillomaviruses with low oncogenic risk (HPV 6, 11, 42, 43, 44).These types of viruses can eventually cause cancer, but the risk of such a disease developing is not very high. Squamous cell epithelium cells of the skin change only if the body is affected by carcinogenic factors: smoking, poor ecology, long-term use of hormonal contraceptives. Type 6 and 11 viruses often cause the development of papillomas in the larynx and genital warts in the genitals.
  3. High-risk oncogenic papillomaviruses (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68)Infection with these viruses often leads to cancer, especially in tumors of the cervix and larynx. They also cause neoplasia, a precancerous condition that manifests itself in changes in the cell structure of the uterus. The most dangerous in this group is HPV 16. This type of virus causes 50% of cancer cases. Type 18 is also quite aggressive and often causes swelling of the cervix. Types 31 and 35 cause bowenoid papules in men and women, which can cause cancer of the penis and cervix. HPV types 51 and 56 are considered the least carcinogenic of the whole group, are easier to treat, and can be excreted by the body itself.

Prognosis of the course of the disease

The most unfavorable prognosis for type 18 virus. The disease can turn into cancer in 3-5 years, which quickly spreads metastases to other organs. The tumor behaves aggressively and grows deep in the genitals. The prognosis for type 16 infection is somewhat better, but the likelihood of tumor recurrence after treatment is high.

The prognosis for 31, 33, 35, 39, 52, 58, 59 types of virus is unfavorable. After 2-3 years after treatment, the disease reappears and often becomes malignant. Cancers caused by these types of viruses have high mortality rates.

Such unfavorable prognoses should warn a person if he finds even a small growth on the skin. It is necessary to consult a dermatologist or gynecologist who can make the correct diagnosis.
You can determine the type of human papillomavirus in laboratories. To do this, take a stain or itch from the area of skin where there is growth. The virus DNA is then determined in the laboratory. Papillomavirus types differ from each other in the structure of sections of the DNA strand. Helps to recognize differencespolymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Symptoms and what do papillomas look like on the skin?

Papilloma on the face (photo)

papilloma in the eye area

These benign growths are often found in places where the skin is thinner: near the eyes, around the nose and mouth. And in men on the chin in the shaving area. Increases can be displayed individually or in groups. In appearance, these are rounded outlets similar to the elongated papillae or cauliflower. Papillomas on the face are pink or brown.
First, a small lump, similar to a pimple, appears on the surface of the skin. Gradually, it increases in size, grows and on the sides. In papilloma diameter reaches up to 3 cm Its base is narrower, and the cap is round and tuberous.

If in women papilloma on the face mainly causes aesthetic problems, then in men it is more difficult. The growths are constantly injured during shaving and this can cause serious inflammation.

A person becomes infected by physical contact with a sick person. This could be a hug, sexual contact or, for example, through shared towels. From the moment of infection until the appearance of papillomas on the face, it can last from 3 months to a year. Often, growths form on the skin after infections, severe stress, hypothermia, during pregnancy, when immunity drops.

Papilloma of the skin of the neck and body (photo)

papilloma on the skin of the neck

Papillomas can appear anywhere on the body. Their location depends on the sex, the route of infection and the type of HPV. Some types of virus cause the appearance of warts mainly on the genitals, others on the body. In men, papillomas most often appear under the armpits, on the sides of the body and on the neck. In women, they appear on the breast, under the breast, on the nipples and in the armpits. But growths can also occur in other parts of the body: in the abdomen, spine, groin.

Papillomas on the body occur on average 3 months after infection. But the virus can nest on the skin for several years and only appear after the body's immune system has declined.

While the papilloma on the skin of the neck and body is small, it can be confused with goose bumps. But gradually it grows and begins to bring a lot of inconvenience: it sticks to clothes, becomes inflamed, bleeds. In this case, you can not postpone the visit to the doctor.

Papilloma on the skin of the hands (photo)

papilloma on the hands

Papillomas or vulgar warts often appear on the skin of the hands, which are caused by HPV types 3 and 10. They are transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person and often grow in places where there were small skin lesions, especially nearthonjve. . From infection to the appearance of warts, it takes about 2-6 months.

Papillomas on the hands have their own characteristics. They are flatter and do not sit on a narrow leg, but directly on the skin. These are small rounded formations of a yellow color with an uneven keratinizing surface. In touch they are dense and rough. Neighboring elements often merge and can hit a large surface. They are often located on the fingers, palms, and in children and on the knees. This is due to the fact that babies crawl without clothes. In children, warts appear more often than in adults, because their skin is thinner and more sensitive to the virus.

Papilloma on the skin of the feet (photo)

papilloma on the skin of the feet

These benign growths on the toes are sometimes called thorns. They cause pain and burning while walking and can bring a lot of problems to a person.

The disease is caused by human papillomavirus, or more precisely by its types 1, 2 and 4. 4-6 weeks after infection, a smooth and light lump appears on the skin. Gradually, it increases in size and turns yellow. Its surface becomes inhomogeneous, lumpy or cottage. The growth surrounds the protruding lip. In 30% of cases, papillomas on the foot disappear on their own. Self-healing occurs mainly in young people with strong immunity.
Sometimes papillomas of the foot are confused with calluses that appear from the prolonged squeezing of the feet with shoes. But the skin pattern remains on the callus, and the surface of the plantar wart consists of distinctly rounded elements.

Removal of skin papillomas

laser papilloma removal

Papillomas are removed when they spoil the appearance, often injuring, inflaming or tending to degenerate into a cancerous tumor. The main treatment for papillomas is their removal. But in order for the warts to no longer bother you, you need to undergo a course of treatment:

  • Immunostimulatory drugs to strengthen the body's defenses.
  • Antiviral. They do not destroy the causative agent of the disease, but only inhibit its growth.
  • cytotoxic drugs. These drugs cause the death of the cells that make up papillomas and warts. They are used when rash is very common and the larynx and other internal organs are affected. These drugs can cause serious side effects.

But the only effective tool is mechanical removal. Modern medicine offers several ways to do this. Let's take a look at their features.

Surgical removal of papillomas.

Surgery is performed if the size of the papilloma is more than 1 cm or there is a suspicion that cancer cells are present in the formation. Often the doctor cut and some healthy tissue. This is necessary so that the growth does not recur. After removal, a suture is applied. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia and lasts 10-15 minutes. In this case, the patient does not feel pain.

In some cases, when the papilloma has a thin stalk, it is cut with surgical scissors. The vessel that fed it with blood is then closed (coagulated) using an electrocoagulator. The area is treated with an antiseptic.

Disadvantages of the method: a fairly large area of skin is removed. It takes a long time to heal, after the operation scars and wounds may appear.

Cauterization of papillomas with liquid nitrogen.

cauterization of papillomas with liquid nitrogen

Another name for this method is cryodestruction, meaning destruction by the cold. Once the tumor (papilloma) has been examined and the analysis has shown that it is benign and there are no altered cells in it, then you can proceed with the surgery.

The doctor touches the papilloma with a cotton swab dipped in liquid nitrogen or a special nozzle. The temperature of nitrogen is -196 degrees. Exposure time is 5-20 seconds. The duration of cauterization depends on the size of the papilloma. Upon contact with liquid nitrogen, the water in the cells freezes, turns to ice, and its crystals destroy the papillomas.

The procedure is painless, but if the skin at this site is very sensitive, then it is anesthetized with an injection of novocaine at the injured site. After nitrogen treatment, the skin whitens and gradually in this place a small blister forms filled with a clear or pink liquid. The surrounding skin is red and swollen. At this stage, a person may experience discomfort - burning and tingling sensation. But they pass gradually.

After the procedure, the doctor advises treating the skin with boric alcohol or potassium permanganate solution 2 times a day for a week. Ointment prevents infection, increases local immunity and reduces the risk of papilloma recurrence.

The blister bursts after 3-4 days and turns into a crust that protects the wound from damage. Gradually, the top layer disappears and healthy pink skin remains beneath it.

Liquid nitrogen removal is recommended if the papillomas are located on the eyelids or small nodes. Cryodestruction is also used to remove growths on the genitals.

Disadvantage of the method: if the doctor slightly freezes the diseased area of the skin, then the recurrence of the papilloma is possible. Excessive freezing damages healthy tissues and causes scarring.

Laser papilloma removal.

Prior to removal, an analysis is done to rule out the presence of cancer cells. The site of the wart or papilloma is anesthetized with lidocaine spray. The patient is asked to wear glasses.

A beam of laser beams is directed at the neoplasm. A papilloma is affected no more than a minute. The laser evaporates the water in the diseased cells, they shrink and turn into a crust. After half an hour the skin around it reddens and swells, this is a normal reaction that will pass in a few days.

The bark falls off in 5-7 days. In its place is soft pink skin. Gradually, its color equalizes and there is no trace of papilloma at the defect site. It will take about 2 weeks for complete recovery. During this period, you need to protect your skin from direct sunlight. Otherwise, a dark brown spot will appear at the papilloma site.

Laser cauterization of papillomas avoids infection of the wound with microorganisms and closes the vessels. Therefore, bleeding during and after surgery does not occur.

The crust formed at the site of the papilloma is not recommended to be wet and steamed for 3 days. Also, until complete healing, you can not apply decorative makeup. This will prevent the appearance of scars. Treat this area with a solution of potassium permanganate or a healing ointment with an antibiotic, as recommended by your doctor.
With the help of laser, papillomas are removed on the arms, legs, face and genitals.

Disadvantage of the method: when you remove large papillomas with laser, scars can remain. Cryodestruction can lead to the fact that the papilloma will decrease in height but will increase in width

Electrocoagulation of papillomas.

This is the removal of neoplasms using electricity. A special electrocoagulator allows you to dry the narrow base of the papilloma or the entire wart. After that, the growth is easily separated from the skin. Bleeding from the wound does not occur because the vessels are closed with electricity.

Recovery will take 7-10 days. At this time, it is recommended to treat the peel with an alcoholic solution of calendula 2 times a day. This will help avoid infection. After the crust falls, underneath is a thin pink skin, which must be protected from damage and direct sunlight.

The main advantage of this method is that the papilloma can be sent for examination to an oncologist.
Disadvantages of the method. If it is not enough to treat the area where the papilloma was located, then after a while it can grow again. Removal to sensitive (genital) areas can be painful.

What is the best way to remove papilloma on face and body?

Removal of papillomas on the face

Papillomas on the face are a significant lack of appearance. Therefore, their removal is a procedure that is performed very often. The choice of method depends on the size of the building and its structure.

Liquid nitrogen papilloma removal is prevalent in many clinics and beauty salons. After it, in most cases, no scars appear on the skin.

Laser removal is also very popular. The specialist accurately doses the power of the laser. This helps to "evaporate" the papilloma cells, but does not affect healthy tissue. It is considered the safest procedure because the laser destroys the germs that cause inflammation.

Electrocoagulation and traditional scalpel removal are more painful and wounds after such surgeries heal longer.

If you prefer to be treated with natural cures, then try to remove the defect on the face with the help of wormwood, celandines or calendula juice. To do this, moisten the papilloma several times a day with juice that stands out from the stalk of the plant.

Removal of papillomas on the eyelid

The skin on the eyelids is very thin and often develops a growth rash. Removal of papillomas on the eyelid requires special precision. Therefore, do not go to casual beauty salons. It is better to entrust this work to a dermatologist.

The best results are obtained by removing with liquid nitrogen or laser. These methods allow you to do the procedure without blood and avoid infection of the wound with bacteria.

Removal of papillomas on the neck

Papillomas in this area are often injured by clothing or jewelry, inflamed. To prevent infection, doctors recommend removing them.

The most common method is cauterizing laser beam outputs. The operation lasts no more than 1 minute for 1 increase. This method may not completely protect against the recurrence of papillomas, but it does reduce the risk.

Electrocoagulation is also used. A thin instrument, through which a high-frequency current passes, heats the tissues and kills the virus. After such a procedure, the papilloma can be sent for research.

Radio wireless operation also has an excellent effect. A thin metal loop is applied to the skin around the papilloma. It creates radio waves. Under their action, skin cells "dry out" and the growth disappears. According to the principle of operation, the method is similar to laser removal.

Removal of papilloma in the body

removal of the papilloma in the body

It is necessary to remove papillomas in the body when there are many of them, they grow and merge with each other, become inflamed and cause discomfort. You can get rid of them with the help of a traditional operation. Large papillomas are cut with a scalpel. At the same time, an area of healthy skin is also captured to remove all the cells affected by the virus. But this method is used when there is a suspicion that cancer cells have appeared.

A more modern and gentler method is cryodestruction. Liquid nitrogen quickly freezes the papilloma and it disappears. The remaining bark should be treated 2 times a day with an alcohol solution of calendula and protected from water.

If possible, you can remove the papilloma with a laser or using an electrocoagulator.
After removing the papillomas, the patient can go home almost immediately. But the patient still has to undergo a course of antiviral treatment and take care of strengthening the immune system.